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Another example of prey to predator communication is the pursuit-deterrent signal. Pursuit-deterrent signals occur when prey indicates to a predator that pursuit would be unproﬁtable because the signaler is prepared to escape. Pursuit-deterrent signals provide a beneﬁt to both the signaler and receiver; they prevent the sender from wasting time and energy ﬂeeing, and they prevent the receiver from investing in a costly pursuit that is unlikely to result in capture. Such signals can advertise prey’s ability to escape, and reﬂect phenotypic condition (quality advertisement), or can advertise that the prey has detected the predator (perception advertisement). Pursuit-deterrent signals have been reported for a wide variety of taxa, including ﬁsh (Godin and Davis, 1995), lizards (Cooper et al., 2004), ungulates (Caro, 1995), rabbits (Holley 1993), primates (Zuberbuhler et al. 1997), rodents (Shelley and Blumstein 2005, Clark, 2005), and birds (Alvarez, 1993, Murphy, 2006, 2007). A familiar example of quality advertisement pursuit-deterrent signal is stotting (sometimes called pronking ), a pronounced combination of stiff-legged running while simultaneously jumping shown by some antelopes such as Thomson's gazelle in the presence of a predator. At least 11 hypotheses for stotting have been proposed. A leading theory today is that it alerts predators that the element of surprise has been lost. Predators like cheetahs rely on surprise attacks, proven by the fact that chases are rarely successful when antelope stot. Predators do not waste energy on a chase that will likely be unsuccessful (optimal foraging behaviour). Quality advertisement can be communicated by modes other than visual. The banner-tailed kangaroo rat produces several complex foot-drumming patterns in a number of different contexts, one of which is when it encounters a snake. The foot-drumming may alert nearby offspring but most likely conveys vibrations through the ground that the rat is too alert for a successful attack, thus preventing the snake's predatory pursuit. 
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Yet, the question remains: Given Tutmarc's early head-start over most of the other "Fathers of the Electric Guitar," just exactly why did he receive such a paucity of recognition for his contributions? It would seem that a combination of bad advice from patent attorneys and his own unfocused business activities led to the Audiovox brand being overshadowed by a whole slew of other, subsequent, companies -- mega-successful corporate guitar makers like Fender and Gibson who've received tons of credit in myriad guitar history books for helping give birth to the twentieth century's most popular form of music, rock 'n' roll.
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