The natural sciences are empirical sciences and, as such, deal only with empirical facts. Thus, when the formal-logical principles are subsumed under the “laws of Nature” as “laws of thought,” this makes the “law of thought” just one among many of the empirical laws of nature. However, Husserl notes that “the only way in which a natural law can be established and justified, is by induction from the singular facts of experience” (). Furthermore, induction does not establish the holding of the law, “only the greater or lesser probability of its holding; the probability, and not the law, is justified by insight” (). This means that logical laws must, without exception, rank as mere probabilities; yet, as he then notes, “nothing, however, seems plainer than that the laws of ‘pure logic’ all have a priori validity” (). That is to say, the laws of ‘pure logic’ are established and justified, not by induction, but by apodictic inner evidence; insight justifies their truth itself. Thus, as Husserl remarks in “Philosophy as a Rigorous Science” (1965) that “naturalism refutes itself” (). It is this theoretical absurdity that leads to a similar absurdity in practice.
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Yield Lab provides new AgTech companies with $100,000 in funding, mentors, and connections supported by an agriculturally solid framework in St. Louis.
There are several newer methods in agricultural science such as permaculture and holistic planned grazing ( holistic management ) that integrate ecology and social sciences with food production. Organic farming is sometimes considered a holistic approach.