Online learning guides for cinematic movies. [Paid subscription required.]
These patterns can give a "lift" to your writing. Practice them. Try using two or three different patterns for your introductory paragraph and see which introductory paragraph is best; it's often a delicate matter of tone and of knowing who your audience is. Do not forget, though, that your introductory paragraph should also include a thesis statement to let your reader know what your topic is and what you are going to say about that topic.
Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
A book with one author
Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton:
Princeton UP, 1957.
A book with more than one author
Gesell, Arnold, and Frances L. Ing. Child Development: An
Introduction to the Study of Human Growth. New York:
Note: If there are four or more authors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase "et al." (which means "et alli," Latin for "and others") in place of the other authors' names, or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page.
A book with no author named
Encyclopedia of Photography. New York: Crown, 1984.
An anthology or collection
Rueschemeyer, Marilyn, ed. Women in the Politics of Postcommunist
Eastern Europe. Armonk: Sharpe 1994.
An essay in a collection
Krutch, Joseph Wood. "What the Year 2000 Won't Be Like."
Finding a Voice. Ed. Jim W. Corder. Glenview: Scott
Foresman, 1973. 21-36.
An article from a reference book
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
An essay in a journal with continuous pagination
Flanigan, Beverly Olson. "Peer Tutoring and Second Language
Acquisition in the Elementary School." Applied
Linguistics 12 (1991): 141-58.
An essay in a journal that pages each issue separately
Barthelme, Frederick. "Architecture." Kansas Quarterly -4
A magazine or newspaper article
Nimmons, David. "Sex and the Brain." Discover Mar. 1994: 26-27.
A government publication
United States Dept. of Labor. Bureau of Statistics. Dictionary of
Occupational Titles. 4th ed. Washington: GPO, 1977.
Daly, Bill. Writing Argumentative Essays. 1997. 26 Jun. 1998
An online journal article
Inada, Kenneth. "A Buddhist Response to the Nature of Human
Rights." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995): 9 pars.
26 Jun. 1998 <http:///>.
An interview that you conducted
Lesh, Philip. Personal Interview. 12 Nov. 1996.
A television or radio program
"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox. WXIA, Atlanta. 19
Acura. Advertisement. Rolling Stone 16 May 1996: 8-9.
McDonald's. Advertisement. CNN. 4 May 1998.
Information on CD-ROM
The CIA World Factbook. CD-ROM. Minneapolis: Quanta, 1992.
An article in a reference database
"Fresco." Britannica Online. Vers. Mar. 1997. Encyclopedia
Britannica. 29 Mar. 1997 <http:///180>.
An article in NewsBank
Derks, Sarah A. "Binge Drinking and College: New Pressures for
an Old Mixer." Commercial Appeal 8 Dec. 1997: A1.
NewsBank NewsFile Collection, Vers.
An article in Ethnic NewsWatch
Reed, William. "Whites and the Entertainment Industry."
Tennessee Tribune 25 Dec. 1996: 28. Ethnic
An article in Broadcast News
"Condom Distribution Does Not Increase Sexual Activity."
Newsnight. CNN. 1 Oct. 1997. Broadcast News,
Now what if we chunk sideways from the iPhone? We end up with an iPad. Chunking sideways describes moving amongst the members of an existing hierarchical level.