In this timeline, the dates are in the Julian "Old Style," with the Gregorian "New Style" ("NS") date in parentheses, until the change in 1918. Thereafter, all dates are in the Gregorian.
Despite being allowed to seize power so easily Lenin soon discovered that his support was far from absolute. His Peace Policy with the Germans was particularly unpopular as it ceded large amounts of Russian territory. Shortly after the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War broke out between the 'Reds' (Communists) and the 'Whites' (Nationalists, Conservatives, Imperialists and other anti-Bolshevik groups). After a bloody four year struggle Lenin and the Reds won, establishing the Soviet Union in 1922, at an estimated cost of 15 million lives and billions of roubles. In 1923 Lenin died and Stalin took over the Communist Party, which continued to rule Russia until 1991 when the USSR was dissolved.
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On 25 October (7 November new style) 1917, Bolsheviks led their forces in the uprising in Petrograd (modern day Saint Petersburg), then capital of Russia, against the Kerensky Provisional Government . The event coincided with the arrival of a flotilla of pro-Bolshevik marines, primarily five destroyers and their crew, into the St. Petersburg harbor. At Kronstadt, sailors also announced their allegiance to the Bolshevik insurrection. In the early morning, the military-revolutionary committee planned the last of the locations to be assaulted or seized from its heavily guarded and picketed center in Smolny palace. The Red Guards systematically captured major government facilities, key communication, installations and vantage points with little opposition. The Petrograd Garrison and most of the city's military units joined the insurrection against the Provisional Government. 
1. At the start of the war, Russia was a vast empire with a large army – but was politically and industrially backward.
2. Its leader, Tsar Nicholas II, adhered to principles of autocracy but was not competent to govern autocratically.
3. Russia’s disastrous 1914 campaigns saw Nicholas take personal command of the army, a politically dangerous step.
4. The tsar and his wife were also discredited by their involvement with the meddling faith healer Grigori Rasputin.
5. By the start of 1917, Russia’s domestic economy had collapsed and both food and fuel were critically scarce in Russian cities. This triggered the February Revolution, an uprising that led to the abdication of the tsar and, by the end of 1917, the rise of a socialist government in Russia.
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